The Lands of Iria has been a land of literacy for centuries. It is in these land that some of the great writers were born such as Namorado Macias, Juan Rodríguez Del Padrón, Rosalia de Castro, Manuel Barros, Nicasio Pajares and Camilo Jose Cela. Throughout their lives and their works each of them expressed pride in belonging to this land.
Herein we provide a brief description of the life and works of these major writers:
Macías O Namorado
A Medieval troubadour born in Padron, in the village of Sande, in 1340. A neighbor of Padron, Juan Rodriguez tells us that his real name was Matías Cascallar y Guisande.
His literary works are Galician and Castilian poems that reflect galleguismos (which is a real belief in the Galician culture and all it represents), which are all collected in the Cancionero de Baena y and the Cancionero de Palacio. Although it was his real life that was truly a novel. It is said that when he was working as a squire for D. Enrique de Aragon, a Mastor of a Millitary and Religious order in Calatrava, he fell in love with a high class servant that was also working for the same person. The girl was married to a high ranking nobleman. Despite this, she maintained a romantic relationship with the poet. Her husband locked Macias in the Arjonilla (Jaén) tower, offended by their actions, the Marquis, flung his spear through a fence which ended up penetrating and killing him. The truth is that Macias was buried in the church of St. Catherine of Arjonilla.
Rosalía de Castro
Rosalia de Castro was born in 1837 in Santiago de Compostela, and registered as a child of unknown parents (actually, the noble Maria Teresa de la Cruz de Castro and Abadia and of the priest José Martinez Viojo.
Her major works are books of poems: Cantares Gallegos (1863, in Galician), a revulsion of the sleeping Galician culture; Follas Novas (1880, in Galician) and En las orillas del Sar (1884, in Castilian). Rosalie received the influence of Romanticism (Espronceda, Becquer …) and Fernan Caballero admired as a woman-writer.
In 1858 she married the writer Manuel M. Murguia with whom she had seven children, which all died without descendants. In 1885, he died at his home in A Killing, and he was buried in the Adina Cemetery. In 1981 his remains were moved to the church of Santo Domingo de Bonaval, in the Panteón de Gallegos Ilustres, in Santiago de Compostela.
In 1947, a patronage to Rosalia de Castro was created to recover her home in Padron called Casa da Matanza which in 1971 was converted into a museum dedicated to her memory. The house, where she lived until her death in 1885, retains its original structure virtually unchanged. In the museum, you can see photos of the poet, of her family and friends, personal mementos, writings, and a host of everyday objects from the XIX century. The Rosalianos Studies Center, educational classroom and Auditorium are in adjacent buildings.
Camilo José Cela
Camilo Jose Cela Trulock (1.916-2002) was born in Iria Flavia on May 11. He spent his childhood in Galicia, until in 1925 when his family moved to Madrid, where he published some of his early poems in 1936 and publishing his first novel in 1945, La Familia de Pascual Duarte
In 1956, he founded a magazine called Papeles de Son Armadans which became a cultural reference in Spain in the 50`s and 60´s. And in 1957 he joined the Real Academia Española which is the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language.
Author of plays such as La Familia de Pascual Duarte, Nuevas Andanzas y Desventuras del Lazarillo de Tormes, Viaje a la Alcarria and La Colmena…,which wins the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1989, el Cervantes (1995), and el Príncipe de Asturias (1987 ) and in 1996 he was ennobled and received the honor of Marquis of Iria Flavia by King D. Juan Carlos.
In 1991, he inaugurated his own foundation in the town of Padrón, a desire that he had for years.
The Foundation is headquartered in Iria Flavia, opposite the old collegiate church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Iria Flavia, the current building used to be huge houses that were built as a canonical residence in the XVIII century.
It has a total area of 11,000 square meters, a library with of over 45,000 volumes, an art gallery with over 700 original paintings a 178 seater auditorium, classrooms and galleries, along with a widely landscaped area. The John Trulock Ferrocarrilero´s Museum displays a sample of the Galician railway history which it is very much a part of.
There is a complete collection of manuscripts that makes up almost a totality of all his work.
The library consists of 45,000 volumes, including all editions and translations of the work of CJC. The newspaper library includes 1,200 titles of magazines and newspapers with a total of 45,900 copies, among which includes the full journal file of Son Armadans . The collection of his letters consists of more than 90,000 letters. The pinacoteca gallery is made up of major names in contemporary art (Picasso, Miro, Mosquera, Ulbricht, Zabaleta, Úrculo …), and has various drawings by Lorca, Alberti and even Cela.
Hundreds of titles, honors and awards, among which are the Nobel (1989), Cervantes (1995) and the Prince of Asturias (1987) – as well as collections and objects that Camilo Jose Cela went compiling along his life and because of their richness and variety the collection surprises all visitors.
We have to add the legacies of José María Sánchez Silva, José García Nieto, Maria del Carmen and Fernando Pajares Escolano Huarte and manuscripts of other authors.
Camilo Jose Cela died in Madrid on January 17, 2002, following his wishes, he was transferred to the Adina cemetery.
Eusebio Lorenzo Baleirón
Eusebio Lorenzo Baleirón was born on January 25, 1962 in Tarrío (Dodro) in a humble family. He was the son of Nieves and Ángel and when he was still not 3 years his father died. He studied primary school in the Chenlo school.
From 1976 to 1980 he studied the bachillerato in the institute of Padrón, it is here where we can place the poetic beginnings of Eusebio when he discovers truly the poetry of the hand of his teacher Bernardino Graña; in this stage he began to write his first stories and poems and he won several literary competitions.
In 1980 he began Galician Philology in Compostela. There he got into contact with a number of colleagues who shared with the same cultural and literary universe: Paulino Vázquez, David Pérez Iglesias and Manuel Forcadela with Román Raña or Chema Bouzón… Together they were going to form the Poetical Generation of the eighties. As a result of these contacts, his poetical work was arising.
Also in Compostela his first publications appeared in the magazine Grial, the studies and the scientific publications dealed with the poetry of Aquilino Iglesia Alvariño, Luís Pimentel, Álvaro Cunqueiro, about the Portuguese Nuno Júdice, … and he collaborated in the preparation of the Linguistic Galician Atlas of the institute of Galician language, among other works. In 1982 he published his first poems in the magazine Dorna.
From 1982 to 1986 he was always a finalist of the award Esquío, the first year with Herdanza da néboa.
In 1983 he participated in the L.P. Rosalía na voz dos poetas with Ramiro Fontes, Avilés de Taramancos… and this same year he won the national competition “O Facho” in Coruña with a poem dedicated to Cunqueiro. During this year 1983 and until his death in 1986 he participated in poetry readings in different Galician cities and villages.
In 1984 he went to Lisboa as labour exchange; there he met the poet Antonio Ramos Rosa about who appreciated the possibility of developing his thesis. In September of this year he married Asunción Sóñora and they will have a daughter named Flavia. In this year 1984 he remained of first prize “Celso Emilio Ferreiro” with Os ollos no camiño and of second in the poetry award of the town hall of Vigo.
When he was 23 he published O corpo e as sombras, Os días olvidados and the book of engravings in poetic prose O libro das viaxes e dos soños that was read in shools.
In 1985 he graduated in Galician-Portuguese Philology and he began to work as a teacher in O Carballiño. This stay did that today O Carballiño has a street that bears his name.
In 1986 he was started an incurable illness and nevertheless he won the post of Galician language and literature of institute and he started in the institute of Boiro as teacher but he couldn’t practise the teaching.
He died in Laíño the morning of December 14, 1986.
In 1988 A morte presentida was published, already posthumously, two years after his death. He began to write this collection of poems in his last trip to Lisbon.
When it was ten years of his death Gramática do silencio. Obra poética (Espiral Maior, 1996), a volume in which all his unpublished poems were gathered, in addition to the released work, with drawings of Ramos Rosa -a definitive collection as a poet. Under the literary direction of Miguel Anxo Fernán Vello and with the prologue of Paulino Vázquez that it was presented in the current CPI, baptized with his name in 2002.
Antología poética (Espiral Maior 2000) is a selection of his work in Galician-Spanish bilingual version.
Since 1988, the city of Dodro is convening annually a poetry award in order to “honour the memory of the poet Celso Emilio Ferreiro natural of this municipality and prematurely disappeared and also to contribute to the reaffirmation of Galician poetry so important in the cultural history of Galicia”. This award is one of the most popular trace cultural events that takes place in Galicia.
EUSEBIO LORENZO BALEIRÓN WORK
– (1985): O corpo e as sombras, Dodro, Ediciñon do autor.
– (1985): Os días olvidados, A Coruña, Algalia Edicións.
– (1988): A morte presentida, Santiago de Compostela, Sotelo Blanco.
– (1996): Gramática do Silencio. Obra poética, A Coruña, Espiral Maior.
– (1986): Libro das viaxes e dos soños, Santiago de Compostela, Vía Láctea.
– (1985): “Tradición e modernidade na obra poética de Iglesia Alvariño” in Grial, nº 88.
– (1985): “A poesía de Nuno Júdice. Notas para unha visión da poesía portuguesa actual” in Grial, nº 90.
– (1986): “Para un estudo estilístico de Herba aquí e acolá. A comparación” in Grial, nº 94.
RODRÍGUEZ, L. (2002): 25 anos de poesía galega 1975-2000, Voz de Galicia, A Coruña.
MORÁN, C. (1999): Río de son e vento, Vigo, Xerais.
ABOUT EUSEBIO LORENZO BALEIRÓN
MONOGRAPHIC MAGAZINES IN HOMAGE TO EUSEBIO LORENZO BALEIRÓN
AA.VV. (1987): “Na memoria de Eusebio Lorenzo” in Dorna, nº 17.
AA.VV (2003): “Número especial en homenaxe á memoria do poeta de Laíño” in O Paspallás.
SENÍN, M.X. (1998): “Eusebio Lorenzo in memoriam: Dez anos da publicación de A morte presentida” in Leliadoura.
PEDREIRA, P. (2001): “Sempre en/con Eusebio”.
C.B. (2004): “La voz lírica y jovial de Laíño” El Correo Gallego, November 7.
ABUÍN DE TEMBRA, A. (2007): “Sobre Eusebio Lorenzo Baleirón”. Galicia Hoxe. December 16.
AA.VV. (2001): Literatura Galega, séculoXX, Vigo, A Nosa Terra.
Enciclopedia Galega Universal (2002), T.11, Vigo, Ir Indo.
Juan Rodríguez de la Cámara
Poet and novelist of Spanish literature from Padron, he was born in the late XIV century in 1390. Linked to the Court of King Juan II of Castile, he held positions in the Santiago and Tui church before joining the Franciscan Order. His last years were spent in the San Francisco convent of Herbon, he is accredited with the contribution of one of the palm trees planted in the cloister which was brought from Palestine and destroyed by a storm.
He is considered to be one of the last troubadours of the Galician School, although his work was written in Castilian. His most important work is Siervo Libre de Amor, which tells the love story of two lovers, constituting a prelude to the sentimental novel of love. Another one that should be highlighted is Bursario which is a Spanish version of Ovid’s Heroides.
Luís Aguirre del Río
He was born in Lestrobe in 1839 and he was a Galician writer in Spanish language directly linked to the Renaissance. He is the only one disciple that had Espronceda in Galicia. His work, a Galician-Spanish dictionary, O Diccionario del dialecto gallego, consists of 8.000 words and it goes forward in a few years to what till now it was considered to be the first Galician dictionary, published by Francisco Javier Rodríguez in 1863 with nearly 3.000 entries. He died in 1866 at the age of 26, without seeing published his dictionary and it was in 2007 when was published by the Superior Council of Scientific Research (CSIC) of Madrid and the Institute of Galician Studies Padre Sarmiento.
Actually, he was never recognized nor studied in Galicia. In 2007 it was published Luís Aguirre. Poesía Completa, a critical edition of all his poetry work known, by the hand of Avelino Abuín de Tembra and Justo Cortizo Sóñora.
Born on February 1, 1844 in Padron. After completing his studies at the Instituto de Santiago de Bachillerato in 1862 he immigrated to Cuba. Where he was an assistant type for a firm, a manager and a cashier.
He published his first newspaper articles in La Voz de Cuba, a local Cuban newspaper. In 1871 he decided to return to Galicia. In 1872 he left his land again to go to Buenos Aires, where he worked in the El Correo Español.
In 1875, he published his only book Ocios de un peregrino, which reflects the impressions of his previous trip to Galicia. In 1879 he created the first Galician Centre of Buenos Aires, where he was President. He collaborated in various newspapers, including The La Nación Española, of which he later held the position of director. He married Paula Florido and Toledo. On March 6, 1884. The 26th day of the same month he leaves for his homeland. After a short stay in his homeland, he travels throughout Spain with his wife. As soon as he arrived to Seville, he dies suddenly on January 5, 1885.
He was born on December 15, 1881 in Padron. At the age of 14 to he emigrates to Montevideo where his uncle lives. He later returns to Padron where he began studying accounting, to later go to Madrid where he finished his studies.
Later he decides to emigrate again, this time to Argentina, where he founded El Despertar Hispánico with a friend. It is in Buenos Aires where he devotes himself entirely to literature and journalism. In 1923 he published his first novel, El conquistador de los trópicos,which inaugurates the subgenre of “novels about dictators” later publishing “El pensador de la selva, “Atorrántida”, “”Don Quijote y el tío Sam “Como pervirtieron a Palleiros“.”…. He died on April 26, 1956 and was buried in Madrid’s La Almudena cemetery.